GigOptix and D-Lightsys Optical Interconnects to be Used on Airbus Military A400M

PALO ALTO, Calif.--(Business Wire)--
GigOptix Inc. (OTCBB:GGOX), a provider of electronic engines for the optically
connected digital world and D-Lightsys a provider of high performance optical
interconnect solutionsfor severe environment applications, announced today their
combined product certification for the A-400M military transport aircraft from
Airbus Military. 

The D-Lightsys` parallel optical transceivers which are designed for use in
harsh conditions were selected by Airbus Equipment manufacturer`s for the A-400M
fuel control systems due to its small footprint and low power capability. Fiber
optic communications links are insensitive to Electro Magnetic Interferences
(EMI), and do not generate EMI, they enable weight saving and guaranty huge
available bandwidth. Hence they are being adopted in avionics systems to ensure
the integrity and allow extendibility of the aircraft communication systems. In
additions replacing copper with fiber optics significantly reduces weight and
thus improves contributes to improved fuel economy. 

The compact design of the GigOptix HXR3401 Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) and
HXT3101 VCSEL driver devices enables D-Lightsys to deliver highly integrated
mechanically robust optical transceivers with the best power consumption in the
market. The devices are built to withstand the severe environmental requirements
of military and avionic applications and comply with AEEC / ARINC 804
transceiver specifications. Being protocol independent, they can be applied to
Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel, Infiniband or any specific communication
application. 

According to Airbus Military, "The A400M is the first truly new military
transport aircraft of its category designed in over 30 years, with twice the
capacity and twice the payload of the current aircraft types that it will
replace. It is all set to become the new standard in military airlift." 

"D-Lightsys has been working closely with GigOptix to produce a superior system
that will be resistant to the stresses of avionics," states Mathias Pez, Chief
Executive Officer of D-Lightsys S.A.S. "We are delighted to announce this
success and look forward to profitable relationship for all parties." 

"Being certified for this advanced avionic application is another step forward
for GigOptix which would not have been possible without our close partnership
with D-Lightsys, who are clear leaders in their field," stated Jörg Wieland,
Vice President and General Manager of GigOptix-Helix. 

About D-Lightsys 

D-Lightsys, a Radiall Company, designs and manufactures high performance optical
interconnect solutions for severe environment applications. It was founded in
2002 by former Thales Research and Technology scientists, all having a strong
expertise in the fields of electronics, optoelectronics and severe environments
requirements. D-Lightsys designs and manufactures high performance optical
interconnect solutions for severe environment applications. In particular,
D-Lightsys offers products and know-how fitting the requirements of avionics,
space, transport and defense industries. 

About GigOptix Inc. 

GigOptix is a leading fabless manufacturer of electronic engines for the
optically connected digital world. The Company offers a broad portfolio of high
speed electronic devices including polymer electro-optic modulators, modulator
drivers, laser drivers and TIAs for telecom, datacom, Infiniband and consumer
optical systems, covering serial and parallel communication technologies from 1G
to 120G. For more information, please visit www.GigOptix.com. 

Forward-Looking Statements

This release may contain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of
Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities
Exchange Act of 1934. All statements by GigOptix regarding its expected
financial position, revenues, cash flow and other operating results, business
strategy, financing plans, customer demand for products, forecasted trends
related to the markets in which it operates, and similar matters are
forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and
uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those
discussed in each such forward-looking statement, including (without limitation)
those discussed under "Risk Factors" in GigOptix's most recently filed Form 10-K
and Form 10-Q, as well as in other current and periodic reports filed with or
furnished to the SEC. Forward-looking statements are made only as of the date
hereof, and GigOptix undertakes no obligation to update or revise any of them.
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UV radiation

This fact sheet explains the types of ultraviolet radiation and the various factors that can affect the levels reaching the Earth’s surface. The sun emits energy over a broad spectrum of wavelengths: visible light that you see, infrared radiation that you feel as heat, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation that you can’t see or feel. UV radiation has a shorter wavelength and higher energy than visible light. It affects human health both positively and negatively. Short exposure to UVB radiation generates vitamin D, but can also lead to sunburn depending on an individual’s skin type. Fortunately for life on Earth, our atmosphere’s stratospheric ozone layer shields us from most UV radiation. What does get through the ozone layer, however, can cause the following problems, particularly for people who spend unprotected time outdoors:

  • Skin cancer
  • Cataracts
  • Suppression of the immune system
  • Premature aging of the skin

Since the benefits of sunlight cannot be separated from its damaging effects, it is important to understand the risks of overexposure, and take simple precautions to protect yourself.

Did You Know?

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, from the sun and from tanning beds, is classified as a human carcinogen, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization.

Types of UV Radiation

The stratospheric ozone layer screens out much of the sun’s harmful UV rays.

Scientists classify UV radiation into three types or bands—UVA, UVB, and UVC. The ozone layer absorbs some, but not all, of these types of UV radiation:

  • UVA: Wavelength: 315-399 nm. Not absorbed by the ozone layer.
  • UVB: Wavelength: 280-314 nm. Mostly absorbed by the ozone layer, but some does reach the Earth’s surface.
  • UVC: Wavelength: 100-279 nm. Completely absorbed by the ozone layer and atmosphere.

UVA and UVB radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface contributes to the serious health effects listed above; it also contributes to environmental impacts. Levels of UVA radiation are more constant than UVB, reaching the Earth’s surface without variations due to the time of day or year. In addition, UVA radiation is not filtered by glass.

UV Levels Depend on a Number of Factors

The level of UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface can vary. Each of the following factors can increase your risk of UV radiation overexposure and consequent health effects.

Stratospheric Ozone Layer

The amount of UV rays the ozone layer absorbs varies depending on the time of year and other natural events. Additionally, the ozone layer is thinner than it used to be due to ozone-depleting chemicals used in industry and consumer products. These chemicals are being phased out, but the ozone layer is not predicted to heal to pre-1980 levels until mid– to late-century.

Time of Day

The sun is highest in the sky around noon. At this time, the sun’s rays have the least distance to travel through the atmosphere and UVB levels are at their highest. In the early morning and late afternoon, the sun’s rays pass through the atmosphere at an angle and their intensity is greatly reduced.

Time of Year

The sun’s angle varies with the seasons, causing the intensity of UV rays to change. UV intensity tends to be highest in the summer.

Latitude

The sun’s rays are strongest at the equator, where the sun is most directly overhead and UV rays must travel the least distance through the atmosphere. Ozone also is naturally thinner in the tropics compared to the mid- and high-latitudes, so there is less ozone to absorb the UV radiation as it passes through the atmosphere. At higher latitudes, the sun is lower in the sky, so UV rays must travel a greater distance through ozone-rich portions of the atmosphere and, in turn, expose those latitudes to less UV radiation.

Altitude

UV intensity increases with altitude because there is less atmosphere to absorb the damaging rays. As a result, your chance of damaging your eyes and skin increases at higher altitudes.

Weather Conditions

Cloud cover reduces UV levels, but not completely. Depending on the thickness of the cloud cover, it is possible to burn on a cloudy day, even if it does not feel warm.

Reflection

Surfaces like snow, sand, pavement, and water reflect much of the UV radiation that reaches them. Because of this reflection, UV intensity can be deceptively high even in shaded areas.

EPA’s SunWise Program

In response to the serious public health threat posed by exposure to UV rays, EPA works with schools and communities across the nation through the SunWise Program. SunWise teaches children how to protect themselves from overexposure to the sun. For more information, please visit www.epa.gov/sunwise.

The UV Index

The UV Index forecasts the strength of the sun’s harmful rays. The higher the number, the greater the chance of sun damage.

Visit www.epa.gov/sunwise/uvindex.html

Be SunWise

  • Do not burn
  • Avoid sun tanning and tanning beds
  • Use sunscreen
  • Cover up
  • Seek shade
  • Watch for the UV Index
  • Use extra caution near water, snow, and sand
  • Get vitamin D safely

What are CV, CC, and CV+CC which are often mentioned in LED power supply specification?

CV (Constant Voltage):Conventional power supply will provide stable regulated voltage (constant voltage) for load usage. Regardless of AC input variation (90~264VAC) or load variation, output voltage will be regulated to within voltage tolerance specification (single output unit typically 1~2%). For example, LPV-60-48 used in powering LED driver + LED light strip, output voltage will remain constant at 48V (as shown in figure 2a).
CC (Constant Current): Designed to provide stable output current (constant current), output voltage will be determined by LED total Vf. For example, using LED with Vf = 3.5V @ 350mA and with 12pcs connected in series. The total Vf will be 3.5Vx12=42V. With 2 strips connected in parallel, the total If = 350mAx2 = 700mA。 If MW constant current LED power supply LPC-35-700 (Vin = 90~264VAC, Vout = 48V/700mA) is used to drive LED load directly, LED power supply will work in CC mode. Output voltage will drop to 42VDC while output current remains constant at 700mA (as shown in figure 2b).
CV+CC MW constant current LED power supply possesses both “C.V.+ C.C.” characteristics. During startup it will operate in “C.V. mode”, which is suitable for LED driver IC and series resistor applications. Once output current requirement exceeds rated current of the power supply and reaches the constant current region, the unit will remain in the constant current mode which is suitable for direct drive of LEDs. C.V.+ C.C. characteristics can be used in all types of LED setup making system design more flexible.

How ppm is dominant factor in crystals and so as in real life….!

Must Read:

Clock accuracy in ppm

Crystal Clock accuracy is defined in terms of ppm or parts per million and it gives a convenient way of comparing accuracies of different crystal specifications.

Note:

  • ppm parts per million.
  • ppb parts per billion.

The following headings give practical calculations showing the typical errors you will encounter when using a clock of a specific type with a specific accuracy.

How good is a 1% accurate clock ?

If you look at a day’s worth of timekeeping then you have 24 x 60 x 60 = 86400 seconds in a day.  So the maximum error after a day has passed is 1% of 86400 = 864 seconds = 14.4 minutes!

Error: 14.4 minutes error per day.

How good is a typical crystal ?

A typical crystal has an error of 100ppm (ish) this translates as 100/1e6 or (1e-4)  So the total error on a day is 86400 x 1e-4= 8.64 seconds per day. In a month you would loose 30×8.64 = 259 seconds or 4.32 minutes per month.

Error: 8.64 seconds per day

How good is a watch crystal ?

A watch crystal has an error of 20ppm (ish), but you have to design the board layout well, this translates as 20/1e6 (2e-5) which  gives an error over a day of 86400 * 2e-5 = 1.73 seconds per day so in a month it looses 30×1.72 = 51 seconds or 1 minute a month (approx).

Error: 1.73 seconds per day.

One of the other factors in a wrist watch is that you wear it on your wrist – and the human body is at a constant temperature.  Crystals have a temperature coefficient graph meaning that another source of error is temperature (This is why you can buy an OCXO or Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator – that generates heat and keeps a constant temperature).  The watch crystal will be better because you keep it at a constant temperature!

How good is an oven controller crystal oscillator OCXO ?

A typical spec might be ±1 x 10-9 (1ppb) so the error after a day would be 86.4us and after a month 2.6ms (2.6e-3 seconds or 2.6 thousandths of a second!).  They are not quoted in ppm as it becomes inconvenient to write e.g. this OCXO has a ppm value of 0.001 ppm or 1ppb.

Error: 84.6us per day.

Note: there are many types designed for many different applications and
all costing different amounts!

How good is a rubidium oscillator ?

This is also known as an atomic clock.

A rubidium clock has an accuracy of about ±1 x 10-12 so the error after a day would be 86.4ns (84e-9 seconds 84 billionths of a second!) so the error after a month would be 2.6us.  Again using ppm is also inconvenient for writing : 0.000001ppm or 0.001ppb

Error: 86.4ns per day.

Error: 2.6us per month.

How good is a cesium oscillator ?

This is also known as an atomic clock.

Cesium beam atomic clocks are stable to 1 x 10-13 (8.64ns/day 8 billionths of a second!) or 259ns (259e-9 seconds) a month (ppm is 0.0000001ppm ! or 0.0001ppb).

Error: 8.46ns per day.

Error: 0.259us per month.

Note: A Cesium fountain is stable to 1 x 10-15.

Comparison of oscailltor’s accuracy

Type Accuracy (ppm/ppb) Accuracy Aging /
10 Year
Aging / 10 Year
Crystal 10ppm-100ppm 10-5 – 10-4 10-20ppm 10×10-6
TCXO 1ppm 10-6 3ppm 3×10-6
OCXO 5-10Mhz 0.02ppm
(20ppb)
2×10-8 ~0.2ppm (200bpp) 0.2×10-6
OCXO
15-100MHz
0.5ppm
(500ppb)
5×10-7 ~10ppb 1×10-8
Rubidium Atomic 1×10-6ppm (0.001ppb) 10-12 0.005ppm (5ppb) 5×10-9

Some TCL code for looking at ppm

# Calculate the ppm given a nominal frequency and actual frequency.

# ppm? 20e6 19998485 Returns 75.75 ppm

proc ppm? { nomf f } {

return [expr (abs($f-$nomf)/$nomf)*1e6 ]

}

# given ppm return decimal e.g. ppm 200 is 0.0002

proc ppm { ppmv } { return [expr $ppmv/1e6] }

# given ppm return decimal e.g. ppb 10 is 1e-8

proc ppb { ppbv } { return [expr $ppbv/1e9] }

# ppm range show max and min of freq:nomf and ppm value

proc ppm_r { nomf ppmv } {

puts [expr $nomf+([ppm $ppmv]*$nomf) ]

puts [expr $nomf-([ppm $ppmv]*$nomf) ]

}

Download TCL from Active state (free) and download tkcon. Double click tkcon to start it and paste the above procedures into tkcon, then use the them by typing in commands at the tkcon command prompt (Turn on calculator mode in preferences):

e.g. ppm? 20e6 19999391

results in 30.450000000000003

i.e. It shows you the ppm value: 30ppm for given nominal frequnecy and actual measured frequency..

What’s All This PPM Stuff?

More times than not when talking to a customer about clock accuracy and I mention a spec in units of parts per million (PPM) the response is, “Huh? What’s PPM?” Fair enough, but first some background:

Behind every great clock there’s a crystal, a piezoelectric device that vibrates at a precise and known frequency. There are other ways to generate frequencies (a resistor and capacitor combination is one of them), but none are more accurate.

Many of our data logger products provide a built-in date and time clock that the instrument uses to time and date stamp recorded data. If you record temperature and humidity, for example, you’ll be able to determine the date and time of occurrence to a precision that is determined by the accuracy of crystal that drives the date-and-time chip that’s embedded in the instrument.

For reasons known only to crystal manufacturers, crystal accuracy is speced in units of PPM. Lower PPM crystals cost more than higher PPM, and manufacturers like us who use crystals in our products make a price/performance judgement call and then simply spec time-and-date clock accuracy at whatever PPM number is associated with the choice. So how do you use PPM to put the figure into the context of your application? I’ll answer that with an example.

The de facto standard in the industry for crystal inaccuracy is 20 PPM, which is always interpreted as a plus or minus number (±20 PPM). In a general sense, for this inaccuracy figure we can state that after 1 million actual  parts, the registered number may be 999,980 to 1,000,020. In the context of a date and time clock, “parts” can be anything that you want it to be: days, hours, minutes, but most likely seconds since it doesn’t make sense to spec inaccuracy over 1 million days (270+ centuries). So, after 11 days, 13 hours, 46 minutes, and 40 seconds (i.e. 1,000,000 seconds) the date-and-time chip driven by the ±20 PPM crystal will register an actual time of this value, ±20 seconds.

You can also express PPM as a percentage: ±20/1,000,000 = ±0.002%. So after 30 days (2,592,000 seconds) we can expect the clock to drift about ±52 seconds; after 60 days about ±104 seconds, and so on.